Copyright and Attribution

Information about our incontestable Registered Trademark® "The Virtual Wall" is on a separate page.

Copyright Information:

All text and photographs on The Virtual Wall are protected by US Copyright law.
Personal remembrances are copyrighted by the person who sent them to us. Contact that person for permission to reproduce them. "Fair Use" provisions of copyright law allow you to copy small excerpts of personal memorial pages without permission.
Many blocks of text entitled "A note from The Virtual Wall" are copyrighted by Kenneth J. Davis, who was president of, Ltd. from July, 2003 to July, 2013. Ken, personally, still holds the copyright for text he wrote on this web site. Please ask Ken directly: Send email to Ken Davis

Many other untitled text items, index pages on, and the presentation and collection as a whole are copyrighted by our not-for-profit organization, Ltd. Please ask us for permission to copy. See our Frequently Asked Questions for additional information regarding copyrights protecting material displayed on, The Virtual Wall.


Citing The Virtual Wall, Help for Students and Researchers:

The following examples are meant to serve as a guide to proper citation formats for students, researchers, and others who wish to include material from memorial pages on The Virtual Wall website in papers, articles, books, etc. The sample citations are based on the MLA (Modern Language Association) citation style. To create the trademark ®, enable the Num Lock key, hold down the Alt and type 0174 on the numeric keypad of your keyboard, or copy-and-paste the text below.

The complete website named The Virtual Wall at :
The Virtual Wall®. Eds. Ken Davis, Jim Schueckler, and Channing Prothro., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 <>.

A personal memorial page with a remembrance posted anonymously:
"Lanny Guy Ladouceur." The Virtual Wall®. 3 Oct. 2000., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 <>.

Notes: The name of the person being remembered is considered the title of the memorial page (a web page). Enter the date of the most recently posted remembrance following the official name of the website (The Virtual Wall®). If no remembrances are posted, use the last updated date which appears at the very bottom of the memorial page. The date that immediately precedes the website's URL is the date the person creating the remembrance most recently updated that remembrance.

A personal memorial page with one signed remembrance:
Paetschow, Bob. "Kent Robert Bolter." The Virtual Wall®. 10 Nov. 2006., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 <>.

A personal memorial page with multiple signed remembrances:
Barrett, Martha, David Spahr, Elaine Farber, Marie Laganas et al.. "Richard Joseph Bois." The Virtual Wall®. 19 May 2004., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 < /db/BoisRJ01a.htm>.

Notes: Enter the name(s) of the authors who have posted remembrances. List only the first four, then use et al. to indicate there are additional remembrance authors on the page.

A personal memorial page with no signed remembrances:
Ken Davis, Jim Schueckler, and Channing Prothro. "John R Doe." The Virtual Wall®. 15 Oct. 2006., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 <>. [This example is NOT actually on The Virtual Wall.)

Notes: Use the website's editors as authors if there are no other signed remembrances. For anonymous remembrances, do not use this format. Use the first example instead. Use the last updated date at the bottom of the page.

A unit, ship or other non-personal memorial written by the website's editors:
(example) Jack Morrison and Jim Schueckler. "USS Forrestal (CVA-59)." The Virtual Wall®. 15 Oct. 2006., Ltd. 1 Jan. 2009 <>.

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